Physical education is considered as a subject of study plansdifferent levels of basic education and represents a discipline that contributes to the harmonious development of the individual through the systematic practice of physical activity. Is oriented to provide children and youth elements and drive satisfactions in relation to their needs, interests and capacities that can be manifested during their participation in different spheres of family, social and productive life. In the history of physical education in Mexico has worked with children and young people following different approaches, each representing a particular curricular trend.
From 1940 military dominance approach characterized by stiff teaching; Students must abide by and fulfill orders under strict control, it's best marches and developments were a clear degree of synchronization of the movement. In 1960, the sporting approach prevails. Its main purpose was competition so the teaching-learning process focused on sports grounds and recreational activities complementary situation that promoted the selection of sports talents. By 1974 the curricular approach is psychomotor; students it should cover at least eight units of learning objectives defined by the concern of teachers focused on applying methods of psychomotor education contributing to physical and intellectual development of students. By 1988 the curricular focus shifts to organic functional model where the prevailing structured goals, eight work units; greater importance is given to the development of motor skills content relating to the functioning of organs and systems of the human body so that it was necessary for the student to relate the knowledge gained with the operation of your body.
The current approach emerged in 1993 with the driving dynamic integration approach in which body movement is essential for students to acquire these significant learning, maximizing the benefits of physical activity is to develop the skills, abilities, habits and attitudes related to body movement.
Respect their learning ability enables the projection of driving to different situations of everyday life experiences, and dynamic integration constant interrelationship between the themes, which refers to each of the fields of action that makes physical education always taking as its starting point the movement.
Terms of physical education
In the work of Cagigal (1983) cited by Moreno JA (1999) find other similar terms: as physical exercise, physical activity, movement education, physical education (used in Spain in the defunct law of physical culture and sport, 31 March 1980 and in Cuba since 1976 in the name of the Higher Institute of Physical Culture "Manuel Fajardo"), sports science, gimnologia, science of human movement, antropocinética, exercise science, CV, kinantropologia, gymnastics and even sport, using them in often interchangeably when sometimes has nothing to do. Some of these terms have been used or are used in turn with different acceptances. Take for example "physical culture" which is used as a "component of the universal culture that synthesize categories, legitimacy, institutions and property created for the assessment of physical exercise in order to improve the biological potential and implicitly spiritual Man "Ruiz Lopez and Dorta (1985) or as" complementary physical activities for adults "(labor gymnastics, gymnastics for home ...) and not confuse it with a few" body culture "or what is known as" bodybuilding "in the attempt to solve the crisis giving other denominations physical education at the end, which got ah, Moreno JA (1999) enlarge the conflict is a greater amount of terminology in which they appear: psychomotor education (Picq and Vayer, 1969), education movement (Le Boulch, 1971), sports physical activity (Gruppe, 1976), physical education, motor education, movement education (Arnorl, 1979), science or socio motor motor behavior (Parlebas , 1981) human movement (Ruiz, 1988), science of physical education in the sciences of physical activity (Vicente Pedraza, 1988), sports physical education (Rodriguez, 1995) etc.. According Blazquez (2001). Some physical education professionals "think that the term physical education is an inadequate term that can be interpreted as physical education and dare not therefore promote physical terms" movement education "or" movement education ". Justification comes argued for the inappropriateness of this nomenclature in the new term can help to generate a new image of respect for the area. The program according to González (1993) cited by Moreno JA (1999), is that "physical education 'is a word that admits different interpretations depending on the content that will be determined in the context in which it is used or philosophical conception of person, therefore ambiguity. "
Physical education meaning .
This proliferation of terms is explained by Cecchini (1996:19) as follows. "Physical education is not uniquely understood expression, relative or very different areas of educational performance and ah evolved in a major way in recent years. A ley with very different meanings depending on: the historical moment in which it operates; tradition and cultural context; different fields of pedagogical intervention; philosophical, anthropological, axiological principles which underlie it, etc.. "" Furthermore, the term physical education coexists with synonyms, expressions, similar, that arise in many cases trying to fill a conceptual void; International as opposed to certain reductionist views or needs, limiting, expanding, upgrading, circumscribing, etc..; this specific field of educational performance "
To Zeigle (1977) cited Galera, AD (2001) polysemy of the term "physical education" encompasses the following meanings: 1. General Physical exercise (sports, active play ...), any kind of physical activity that involves vigorous exercise ( jogging, cycling ...), movement with expressive purpose (aerobic, dance ...), and exercise any purpose related to these types of activities (weightlifting, gymnastics sueve ...), the teaching of this activity by a teacher or other person ( for example, a father teaching his son to swim). February. Learning physical activity that occurs in children, adults or people of any age. . 3 - real or desired result is obtained that such practices. April. A discipline or field of research that is its body of knowledge. 5 A profession that bases its practice on the body of knowledge developed.
For Arnold (1991) cited by Moreno JA 1999, the training of physical education scope encompasses three dimensions: first: empirical and conceptual information content "environment education movement." Second: "dare movement education" training values (responsibility, solidarity ..) attitudes and norms. Third "movement education", "know how" or practical knowledge (skills, abilities, skills, etc..).
Physical education and its place in the Education Sciences
The Science Education can be defined "as the differentiator processing reality" education "in terms of science" [...] "The first to use the term science education was Jullien Paris in 1817 (Escolano, 1978.20), "Cecchini 1996.
For Vincent, M. (1988.10) [...] "pedagogical study of human physical activity (study of physical education) must look at it from the" logic "of Education Sciences within them because looms the most appropriate way, both conceptually and content proximity and methodological treatment of research "[...] not to mention [...]" intercommunication between them and other groups of materials and human science disciplines occupied the various aspects of the movement, in fact inseparable: the movement as biological process (Physiology and Physiology of effort) as a physical phenomenon (Biomechanics, Kinesiology, Kinantropometry) as a means to increase job performance and / or sports (Ergonomics) as a basis and foundation of the sporting events of culture (History of Sport, Sociology of Sport) as a preventive health and even as a therapeutic measure (Medical Sciences), etc.. "
Therefore, physical education "is all science or activity that revolves around the fact educate employment of human movement. So forget any of the two (educational event and motor) supposed to distort reality" Cecchini 1996. "Physical Education can be seen as a genuine teaching of the driving behavior of individuals. Their purpose is education and the means used motor skills." Blázquez, 2001
The central themes of physical education:
1 -. Stimulation Perceptual Motor : relates to the knowledge and mastery of the body of sensopercepciones and gross motor experiences.
. 2 - Physical Capabilities Conditional: such as strength, speed, endurance and flexibility.
. 3 - Basic Sports Training : through sports training and school sports.
. 4 - Physical Activity for Health : wherein notions and concepts for physical exercise and its effects on the body work.
. 5 - Social Interaction : it relates to cultural attitudes and values.
The purposes of the program are:
ü Improve learner coordinative capacity * based on possibilities, manifestations of dominance and efficient movement impact on problem solving in the cognitive areas, motor, emotional and social.
ü Encourage, develop and maintain the physical condition of the student, through the systematic exercise of physical abilities, attending to individual characteristics.
ü Encourage learner manifestation of drive from the practice of physical and sports and recreational activities that allow them to integrate and interact with other skills.
ü Encourage learner confidence and self-assurance by performing physical activities that allow the possibility of control and management of the body in different situations.
ü Promote and encourage learner acquiring habits of daily exercise, hygiene, feeding, resting and environmental conservation, the practice of complementary activities that have an effective impact on the individual and collective health.
ü Encourage the demonstration of positive individual and group attitudes and purchasing securities from those activities that use the movement as a form of expression.
ü Increase learner favorable social attitudes of respect, cooperation and trust in others, through group physical activities that promote their integration into the environment and their interpersonal relationship.
ü Strengthen learner national identity through the practice of traditional and regional physical recreational activities that facilitate the promotion of cultural values associated with all types of motor manifestation.
General content of physical education physical education today:
Is "Dynamic Powertrain Integration" "Motor" because is based on the movement of the student body, which is the object of study of the subject. "Dynamic Integration", by the constant interplay that develops between 5 themes and correlation with other subjects of the curriculum of basic education, an essential requirement of the educational process.